Microwave and Ultrasonic Extraction of Chlorophenoxy Acids
from Soil and Their Determination
by Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay

V. S. Morozovaa, S. A. Eremina, P. N. Nesterenkoa, N. A. Klyuevb,
A. A. Shelepchikov
b, and I. V. Kubrakovac

a Department of Chemistry, Moscow State University, Vorob’evy gory, Moscow, 119992 Russia

b Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Leninskii pr. 33, Moscow, 117071 Russia

c Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences,
ul. Kosygina 19, Moscow, 119991 Russia

Received August 30, 2006; in final form, May 22, 2007

Abstract—Procedures were developed for the ultrasonic and microwave extraction of pesticides, 2,4-dichlo-
rophenoxyacetic (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlophenoxyacetic (2,4,5-T) acids from soils for the subsequent determi-
nation by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The effect of the matrix composition of soils on the
FPIA results was studied, and the optimum extractants and extraction conditions were selected. It was found
that 40% ethanol is optimum for both extraction and FPIA determination, because it does not cause antibody
denaturation. The recovery of pesticides in soil was 80–132% for 2,4-D and 101–138% for 2,4,5-T. Microwave
extraction is more efficient than ultrasonic extraction for the determination of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T in soil. The
detection limit in soil and the analytical range are 2 and 4–200 g/g, respectively, for 2,4-D and 20 and 80–
5000g/g, respectively, for 2,4,5-T. Results of the determination of 2,4-D in soil by FPIA are in good agree-
ment with the results of the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. The procedures can be
used for the rapid determination of chlorophenoxy acids in soils.

DOI: 10.1134/S1061934808020044

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